Can't restore the GRUB Bootloader

I run Manjaro in a VirtualBox machine on a Windows 8.1 host. The HDD started failing, causing Manjaro to crash. I transferred the Manjaro VM file to a stable drive. It boots to Grub 2.

First I followed the instructions at

This failed at step
linux /boot/vmlinuz-3.2.0-14-generic root=/dev/sda1 ro
Then I followed the instructions at
This failed at step
chroot /mnt
with error

# chroot /mnt
Segmentation fault (core dumped)

The mhwd-chroot command fails with an error message that vanishes too fast to see, but probably it's telling me the same thing.

Googling suggests that troubleshooting a segmentation fault is beyond my abilities.

I'd prefer not to reinstall Manjaro. I assume that will wipe out my customizations.

I do have an older backup of the OS I can restore from, if this one is hopeless.

Thanks for your help.

$ inxi -Fxz
System:    Host: manjaro Kernel: 4.4.19-1-MANJARO x86_64 (64 bit gcc: 6.1.1) Desktop: Xfce 4.12.3 (Gtk 2.24.30)
           Distro: Manjaro Linux
Machine:   System: innotek (portable) product: VirtualBox v: 1.2
           Mobo: Oracle model: VirtualBox v: 1.2 BIOS: innotek v: VirtualBox date: 12/01/2006
Battery    BAT0: charge: 49.5 Wh 99.0% condition: 50.0/50.0 Wh (100%) model: innotek 1 status: N/A
CPU:       Dual core Intel Core i7-4720HQ (-MCP-) cache: 6144 KB
           flags: (lm nx sse sse2 sse3 sse4_1 sse4_2 ssse3) bmips: 10380
           clock speeds: max: 2594 MHz 1: 2594 MHz 2: 2594 MHz
Graphics:  Card: InnoTek Systemberatung VirtualBox Graphics Adapter bus-ID: 00:02.0
           Display Server: X.Org 1.17.4 drivers: (unloaded: fbdev,vesa)
           Resolution: 1920x985@59.91hz, 1920x989@59.96hz
           GLX Renderer: Gallium 0.4 on llvmpipe (LLVM 3.8, 256 bits)
           GLX Version: 3.0 Mesa 12.0.1 Direct Rendering: Yes
Audio:     Card Intel 82801AA AC'97 Audio Controller driver: snd_intel8x0 ports: d100 d200 bus-ID: 00:05.0
           Sound: Advanced Linux Sound Architecture v: k4.4.19-1-MANJARO
Network:   Card-1: Intel 82540EM Gigabit Ethernet Controller
           driver: e1000 v: 7.3.21-k8-NAPI port: d010 bus-ID: 00:03.0
           IF: enp0s3 state: down mac: <filter>
           Card-2: Intel 82540EM Gigabit Ethernet Controller
           driver: e1000 v: 7.3.21-k8-NAPI port: d240 bus-ID: 00:08.0
           IF: enp0s8 state: up speed: 1000 Mbps duplex: full mac: <filter>
           Card-3: Intel 82540EM Gigabit Ethernet Controller
           driver: e1000 v: 7.3.21-k8-NAPI port: d248 bus-ID: 00:09.0
           IF: enp0s9 state: up speed: 1000 Mbps duplex: full mac: <filter>
Drives:    HDD Total Size: 1321.7GB (2.1% used) ID-1: /dev/sda model: VBOX_HARDDISK size: 313.3GB
           ID-2: /dev/sdb model: VBOX_HARDDISK size: 107.4GB ID-3: /dev/sdc model: VBOX_HARDDISK size: 901.0GB
Partition: ID-1: / size: 2.3G used: 50M (3%) fs: overlay dev: N/A
           ID-2: swap-1 size: 6.97GB used: 0.00GB (0%) fs: swap dev: /dev/sda2
Sensors:   None detected - is lm-sensors installed and configured?
Info:      Processes: 153 Uptime: 30 min Memory: 521.0/3019.4MB Init: systemd Gcc sys: 6.1.1
           Client: Shell (bash 4.3.461) inxi: 2.3.1 

Copy content of: your home folder somewhere (external drive, usb), install Manjaro anew, install all the programs you used to have and copy the home backup overriding home. Reboot.
If you have all the same programs and didn't do much /etc changes, it should restore your settings.
This still may cause some unforeseen issues but they are usually easy to fix.

Trying to do this your way is just too complicated and too problematic, hence no one wants to take on it, especially that all official ways didn't pan out.

Your VM-File took probably some damage. If you can boot the VM with your install iso you should be able to mount that vm-disk and save some of your config data. Then delete the vm-disk and create a new maschine

I'm glad I asked rather than waste additional time troubleshooting. I can mount the disk, so I'll just retrieve my data and use the backup VM.

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