After doing tons of searching I found a solution that sort of helped, it was to run
sudo rmmod snd-hda-intel -f; sudo modprobe snd-hda-intel
This initially immediately solved my issue, but the next time it stopped working I had to run the command several times before it worked, and now the command won't fix it at all.
When the issue first popped up, I remember I temporarily got my audio to work by reinstalling some packages, some alsa ones and also pulseaudio, now that's not working either.
Additionally, the speakers (only when not working) will crackle and pop occasionally, and every time I unload and reload the kernel module, it sounds like someone is hotplugging my speakers.
The speakers definitely aren't the problem, I tested with my phone. The 5.1 surround definitely isn't a problem, I tested thoroughly with it just the 2.1 jack in.
Additionally, pulseaudio, or alsa, or whatever actually monitors these things, CAN see when I plug and unplug the speakers. The playback option goes away when it's unplugged.
The same situation with the front jack as well.
CPU: AMD Ryzen 7 3700X (16) @ 3.600GHz GPU: AMD ATI Radeon RX 5600 OEM/5600 XT / 5700/5700 XT Sound device: Analog on ASRock A320M-HDV (yeah, I know it's not great, but it wasn't exactly my choice which one I got with the proc, long, hopefully irrelevant story.) Kernel: 5.7 All packages up to date with stable